Cardiovascular Risk Reduction
Atherosclerosis is a very old disease, which has been found in the mummies of Egyptian pharaohs. It is a pathological entity and its clinical counterpart is cardiovascular disease (CVD). Only in recent times have its consequences reached epidemic proportions, mainly in Western affluent societies, although that epidemic is breaking through to other non-Western populations today. The clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis are manifold, but still constitute only the tip of the iceberg. To some extent atherosclerosis is universal, the pathogenesis is complex, but it is likely that more than 90% of the facts about the processes involved are now known, although how these facts fit into an overall comprehensible framework is less understood1.