Cardiac surgery or cardiovascular surgery
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is the surgery of heart or great vessels. It is often carried out to treat complications of ischemic heart disease; to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease due to various causes, which include endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. Other surgeries include Minimally Invasive Heart Surgery, Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs), heart transplantation and much more. Healthy valves open and close in a specific way as the heart pumps blood. Each valve has one set of flaps called leaflets. The leaflets open to allow blood to pass from one heart apartment into another or into the arteries. Then the leaflets close tightly to cease blood from flowing backward. Heart surgery is applied to fix leaflets that do not open as wide as they should. This can happen if they become thick or stiff or join together. As a result, not enough blood flows through the valve.